Evaluation of an ultrasound bladder scanner in supine and standing position

J Appl Clin Med Phys. 2021 Dec;22(12):194-202. doi: 10.1002/acm2.13424. Epub 2021 Oct 22.


Purpose: This study examined the performance of a bladder volume measuring device, the BladderScan (BS) BVI9400. The use of the BS offers the possibility of assessing the bladder volume before positioning the patient and performing the daily image-guided radiotherapy procedure. Patients often cannot lie down before entering the treatment vault. Therefore, the BS was also assessed in a standing position.

Methods: The repeatability precision was first evaluated, which is the variability of immediate repeated measures of the BS with same operator and subject. This was followed by the reproducibility precision of the BS in which the operator and subjects differ. Finally, the trueness was evaluated in terms of fixed and proportional bias of the results by applying weighted least-squares fitting. Note that 53 and 85 patient measurements were carried out in supine and standing position, respectively, each consisting of three repeated BS measurements. These were compared with the computed tomography (CT)-delineated bladder volume.

Results: Repeatability was dependent on measurement value (heteroscedasticity) with σrepeatability (BS) = ±15 cm3 ± 10%. However, the total agreement between BS and CT was low with the 95% limits of agreement (LOAs) exceeding ±200 cm3 due to poor patient reproducibility and presence of fixed and proportional bias. Only in the best case of male patients in the supine position, three BS measurements, and correction for the fixed and proportional bias, 95% LOAs of [-147, +114] cm3 were obtained between CT and BS.

Conclusion: The agreement of the BVI9400 BS with CT was found to be too low for radiotherapy applications.

Keywords: BVI 9400; BladderScan; bladder filling; radiotherapy.

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Male
  • Radiotherapy, Image-Guided*
  • Reproducibility of Results
  • Standing Position
  • Supine Position
  • Ultrasonography
  • Urinary Bladder* / diagnostic imaging