The extent of spermatogenic impairment on intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) outcomes and the risk of major birth defects have been little assessed. In this study, we evaluated the relationship between various spermatogenic conditions, sperm origin on ICSI outcomes, and major birth defects. A total of 934 infertile men attending the Center for Reproductive Medicine of Ren Ji Hospital (Shanghai, China) were classified into six groups: nonobstructive azoospermia (NOA; n = 84), extremely severe oligozoospermia (esOZ; n = 163), severe oligozoospermia (sOZ, n = 174), mild oligozoospermia (mOZ; n = 148), obstructive azoospermia (OAZ; n = 155), and normozoospermia (NZ; n = 210). Rates of fertilization, embryo cleavage, high-quality embryos, implantation, biochemical and clinical pregnancies, abortion, delivery, newborns, as well as major birth malformations, and other newborn outcomes were analyzed and compared among groups. The NOA group showed a statistically lower fertilization rate (68.2% vs esOZ 77.3%, sOZ 78.0%, mOZ 73.8%, OAZ 76.6%, and NZ 79.3%, all P < 0.05), but a significantly higher implantation rate (37.8%) than the groups esOZ (30.1%), sOZ (30.4%), mOZ (32.6%), and OAZ (31.0%) (all P < 0.05), which was similar to that of Group NZ (38.4%). However, there were no statistically significant differences in rates of embryo cleavage, high-quality embryos, biochemical and clinical pregnancies, abortions, deliveries, major birth malformations, and other newborn outcomes in the six groups. The results showed that NOA only negatively affects some embryological outcomes such as fertilization rate. There was no evidence of differences in other embryological and clinical outcomes with respect to sperm source or spermatogenic status. Spermatogenic failure and sperm origins do not impinge on the clinical outcomes in ICSI treatment.
Keywords: intracytoplasmic sperm injection; nonobstructive azoospermia; normozoospermia; obstructive azoospermia; oligozoospermia.