Self-help smoking cessation intervention for Spanish-speaking Hispanics/Latinxs in the United States: A randomized controlled trial

Cancer. 2022 Mar 1;128(5):984-994. doi: 10.1002/cncr.33986. Epub 2021 Oct 22.


Background: Hispanic/Latinx smokers living in the United States face unique challenges in quitting smoking. This study evaluated the efficacy of a culturally relevant, Spanish-language, extended self-help smoking cessation intervention among Hispanic smokers.

Methods: A 2-arm parallel randomized controlled trial was conducted with Hispanic/Latinx smokers living in the United States who preferred health information in Spanish and smoked 5 or more cigarettes per week. Participants were randomly allocated to receive Libre del Cigarrillo (LDC), which consisted of 11 booklets and 9 pamphlets mailed monthly over 18 months, or the usual care (UC), which was a single Spanish-language self-help booklet from the National Cancer Institute. The primary outcome was self-reported 7-day point prevalence smoking abstinence assessed 6, 12, 18, and 24 months after the baseline. Eight prespecified moderators of the intervention were evaluated. Cost-effectiveness was also evaluated. All statistical tests were 2-sided.

Results: Data from all participants randomized to LDC (n = 714) or UC (n = 703) were used for analyses after multiple imputation to manage missing data. Generalized estimating equation analyses indicated that LDC abstinence rates were higher (P < .001) across all assessments. Logistic regression analyses revealed that at 24 months, the abstinence rate was greater for LDC (33.1%) than UC (24.3%; odds ratio, 1.54; 95% confidence interval, 1.18-2.02; P = .002). Men exhibited a strong intervention effect at all assessments (P values < .001), whereas the intervention effect for women was observed only at 6 and 12 months (P values < .018). In comparison with UC, the incremental cost per quitter in the LDC arm was $648.43 at 18 months and $683.93 at 24 months.

Conclusions: A culturally relevant, Spanish-language intervention was efficacious and cost-effective for smoking cessation.

Lay summary: Research is needed to develop interventions for ethnic minority smokers. The aim of the current study was to test a Spanish-language adaptation of a validated and easily implemented self-help smoking cessation intervention in a nationwide randomized controlled trial. The findings demonstrated that the intervention produced greater smoking abstinence in comparison with a standard self-help booklet. Participants also were more satisfied with the intervention, and it was cost-effective. Efforts aimed at promoting tobacco abstinence in this underserved population could have significant public health implications, including potential reductions in cancer health disparities associated with tobacco smoking.

Trial registration: NCT02945787.

Keywords: Hispanic; Latino; Latinx; randomized controlled trial; self-help; smoking cessation.

Publication types

  • Randomized Controlled Trial
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Ethnicity
  • Female
  • Hispanic or Latino
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Minority Groups
  • Smokers
  • Smoking Cessation*
  • United States / epidemiology

Associated data