Photobiomodulation (PBM) imparts therapeutically significant benefits in the healing of chronic wounds. Chronic wounds develop when the stages of wound healing fail to progress in a timely and orderly frame, and without an established functional and structural outcome. Therapeutic benefits associated with PBM include augmenting tissue regeneration and repair, mitigating inflammation, relieving pain, and reducing oxidative stress. PBM stimulates the mitochondria, resulting in an increase in adenosine triphosphate (ATP) production and the downstream release of growth factors. The binding of growth factors to cell surface receptors induces signalling pathways that transmit signals to the nucleus for the transcription of genes for increased cellular proliferation, viability, and migration in numerous cell types, including stem cells and fibroblasts. Over the past few years, significant advances have been made in understanding how PBM regulates numerous signalling pathways implicated in chronic wound repair. This review highlights the significant role of PBM in the activation of several cell signalling pathways involved in wound healing.
Keywords: JAK/STAT; MAPKs; calcium; cellular signalling pathway; photobiomodulation; wound healing.