Polar Vortex Multi-Day Intensity Prediction Relying on New Deep Learning Model: A Combined Convolution Neural Network with Long Short-Term Memory Based on Gaussian Smoothing Method

Entropy (Basel). 2021 Oct 8;23(10):1314. doi: 10.3390/e23101314.


The variation of polar vortex intensity is a significant factor affecting the atmospheric conditions and weather in the Northern Hemisphere (NH) and even the world. However, previous studies on the prediction of polar vortex intensity are insufficient. This paper establishes a deep learning (DL) model for multi-day and long-time intensity prediction of the polar vortex. Focusing on the winter period with the strongest polar vortex intensity, geopotential height (GPH) data of NCEP from 1948 to 2020 at 50 hPa are used to construct the dataset of polar vortex anomaly distribution images and polar vortex intensity time series. Then, we propose a new convolution neural network with long short-term memory based on Gaussian smoothing (GSCNN-LSTM) model which can not only accurately predict the variation characteristics of polar vortex intensity from day to day, but also can produce a skillful forecast for lead times of up to 20 days. Moreover, the innovative GSCNN-LSTM model has better stability and skillful correlation prediction than the traditional and some advanced spatiotemporal sequence prediction models. The accuracy of the model suggests important implications that DL methods have good applicability in forecasting the nonlinear system and vortex spatial-temporal characteristics variation in the atmosphere.

Keywords: Gaussian smoothing; long short-term memory network; polar vortex intensity; three-dimensional convolutional neural network.