Study of Kinetic Freeze-Out Parameters as a Function of Rapidity in pp Collisions at CERN SPS Energies

Entropy (Basel). 2021 Oct 19;23(10):1363. doi: 10.3390/e23101363.


We used the blast wave model with the Boltzmann-Gibbs statistics and analyzed the experimental data measured by the NA61/SHINE Collaboration in inelastic (INEL) proton-proton collisions at different rapidity slices at different center-of-mass energies. The particles used in this study were π+, π-, K+, K-, and p¯. We extracted the kinetic freeze-out temperature, transverse flow velocity, and kinetic freeze-out volume from the transverse momentum spectra of the particles. We observed that the kinetic freeze-out temperature is rapidity and energy dependent, while the transverse flow velocity does not depend on them. Furthermore, we observed that the kinetic freeze-out volume is energy dependent, but it remains constant with changing the rapidity. We also observed that all three parameters are mass dependent. In addition, with the increase of mass, the kinetic freeze-out temperature increases, and the transverse flow velocity, as well as kinetic freeze-out volume decrease.

Keywords: kinetic freeze-out temperature; kinetic freeze-out volume; rapidity; transverse flow velocity; transverse momentum spectra.