Biochemical and Morphological Characteristics of Some Macrofungi Grown Naturally

J Fungi (Basel). 2021 Oct 12;7(10):851. doi: 10.3390/jof7100851.


Recently, the production of macro-fungi (mushrooms) has steadily increased, and so has their economic value, in global terms. The use of functional foods, dietary supplements, and traditional medicines derived from macro-fungi is increasing as they have numerous health benefits as well as abundant nutrients. This study aimed to determine some biochemical contents (pH, soluble solid contents (SSC), total antioxidant capacity (TAC) and total phenolic contents (TPC)) of eight edible macro-fungi species growing naturally (in the wild) in Turkey. The samples were collected in the Van Yuzuncu Yil University (VAN YYU) campus area in the months of April-May 2018, in different locations, and brought to the laboratory, and the necessary mycological techniques were applied for their identification. Location, habitats, collection dates and some morphological measurements were determined for all identified species. Biochemical parameters of the macro-fungi species were analyzed separately both in cap and stem. The color values (L, a, b, Chroma and hue) were separately evaluated on cap surface, cap basement and stem. Results showed that there were significant differences for most of the biochemical parameters in different organs between and within species. The pH, SSC, TAC and TPC values varied from 6.62 to 8.75, 2.25 to 5.80° brix, 15.72 to 57.67 TE mg-1 and 13.85 to 60.16 gallic acid equivalent (GAE) fresh weight basis. As a result of the study, it was concluded that the parameters such as total antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content and soluble content in Morchella esculenta, Helvella leucopus, Agaricus bitorquis and Suillus collinitus were higher than for the other species and clearly implied that they may be further exploited as functional ingredients in the composition of innovative food products.

Keywords: Turkey; Van; macro-fungi; soluble solid content; total antioxidant capacity; total phenolic contents.