Adsorption of Zn2+ from Synthetic Wastewater Using Dried Watermelon Rind (D-WMR): An Overview of Nonlinear and Linear Regression and Error Analysis

Molecules. 2021 Oct 13;26(20):6176. doi: 10.3390/molecules26206176.


Sustainable wastewater treatment is one of the biggest issues of the 21st century. Metals such as Zn2+ have been released into the environment due to rapid industrial development. In this study, dried watermelon rind (D-WMR) is used as a low-cost adsorption material to assess natural adsorbents' ability to remove Zn2+ from synthetic wastewater. D-WMR was characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray fluorescence (XRF). According to the results of the analysis, the D-WMR has two colours, white and black, and a significant concentration of mesoporous silica (83.70%). Moreover, after three hours of contact time in a synthetic solution with 400 mg/L Zn2+ concentration at pH 8 and 30 to 40 °C, the highest adsorption capacity of Zn2+ onto 1.5 g D-WMR adsorbent dose with 150 μm particle size was 25 mg/g. The experimental equilibrium data of Zn2+ onto D-WMR was utilized to compare nonlinear and linear isotherm and kinetics models for parameter determination. The best models for fitting equilibrium data were nonlinear Langmuir and pseudo-second models with lower error functions. Consequently, the potential use of D-WMR as a natural adsorbent for Zn2+ removal was highlighted, and error analysis indicated that nonlinear models best explain the adsorption data.

Keywords: Zn2+; adsorption; isotherm; kinetics; watermelon rind.

MeSH terms

  • Adsorption
  • Citrullus / chemistry*
  • Hydrogen-Ion Concentration
  • Kinetics
  • Linear Models
  • Thermodynamics
  • Wastewater / chemistry
  • Water Purification / methods*
  • Zinc / chemistry
  • Zinc / isolation & purification*


  • Waste Water
  • Zinc