A Promiscuous Halogenase for the Derivatization of Flavonoids

Molecules. 2021 Oct 14;26(20):6220. doi: 10.3390/molecules26206220.


Halogenation often improves the bioactive properties of natural products and is used in pharmaceutical research for the generation of new potential drug leads. High regio- and stereospecificity, simple reaction conditions and straightforward downstream processing are the main advantages of halogenation using enzymatic biocatalysts compared to chemical synthetic approaches. The identification of new promiscuous halogenases for the modification of various natural products is of great interest in modern drug discovery. In this paper, we report the identification of a new promiscuous FAD-dependent halogenase, DklH, from Frankia alni ACN14a. The identified halogenase readily modifies various flavonoid compounds, including those with well-studied biological activities. This halogenase has been demonstrated to modify not only flavones and isoflavones, but also flavonols, flavanones and flavanonols. The structural requirements for DklH substrate recognition were determined using a feeding approach. The homology model of DklH and the mechanism of substrate recognition are also proposed in this paper.

Keywords: Frankia alni; Streptomyces albus Del14; flavonoid; halogenase; heterologous expression.

MeSH terms

  • Bacterial Proteins / chemistry
  • Bacterial Proteins / genetics
  • Bacterial Proteins / metabolism*
  • Biocatalysis
  • Drug Discovery
  • Flavonoids / chemistry
  • Flavonoids / metabolism*
  • Frankia / enzymology
  • Frankia / genetics
  • Genes, Bacterial
  • Halogenation*
  • Molecular Docking Simulation
  • Oxidoreductases / chemistry
  • Oxidoreductases / genetics
  • Oxidoreductases / metabolism*
  • Recombinant Proteins / chemistry
  • Recombinant Proteins / genetics
  • Recombinant Proteins / metabolism
  • Substrate Specificity


  • Bacterial Proteins
  • Flavonoids
  • Recombinant Proteins
  • chrysin
  • Oxidoreductases
  • tryptophan halogenase

Supplementary concepts

  • Frankia alni