The controversial association of gut and urinary microbiota with kidney stone formation

Microb Pathog. 2021 Dec;161(Pt A):105257. doi: 10.1016/j.micpath.2021.105257. Epub 2021 Oct 20.


Nephrolithiasis (kidney stones) is one of the most common chronic kidney diseases that are typically more common among adult men comparing to adult women. The prevalence of this disease is increasing which is influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Kidney stones are mainly composed of calcium oxalate and urinary oxalate which is considered a dangerous factor in their formation. Besides diverse leading reasons in the progression of nephrolithiasis, the gut and urinary microbiome has been recognized as a major player in the development or prevention of it. These microbes produce metabolites that have diverse effects on host biological functions. Therefore, Changes in the composition and structure of the microbiome (dysbiosis) have been implicated in various diseases. The present review focuses on the roles of gut and urinary in kidney stone formation.

Keywords: Gut microbiota; Kidney stone; Microbiome; Nephrolithiasis; Urinary microbiota.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Calcium Oxalate
  • Dysbiosis
  • Female
  • Gastrointestinal Microbiome*
  • Humans
  • Kidney Calculi* / etiology
  • Male
  • Microbiota*


  • Calcium Oxalate