Activated-mast cells (MCs) within gingival-tissue of chronic-periodontitis (CP) patients, release various inflammatory-factors. Bradykinin is a nine-amino-acid peptide and pro-inflammatory mediator, produced through factor-XII-cascade or tryptase-cascade. The ability of MC-chymase in bradykinin generation has not been discussed yet. This study investigated the salivary levels of MC-chymase, high molecular weight kininogen (HMWK) and bradykinin of CP patients; examined the potential of MC-proteases in bradykinin production using biochemistry-models; and explored the effects of bradykinin on gingival fibroblasts (GFs). Saliva-samples were collected; MC-protease activities were detected; HMWK cleavage was assessed by western-blot and SDS-PAGE; bradykinin levels were measured using immunoassay. Primary GFs were extracted and cultured with or without bradykinin; cell-viability, gelatine-zymography and flow-cytometry were applied. Immunocytochemistry and western-blot were used to detect intracellular protein expressions of bradykinin-stimulated GFs. The data showed that the salivary-levels of MC-proteases, bradykinin, HMWK, and lactoferrin of CP-patients were increased. HMWK was cleaved by MC-chymase in-vitro, resulting in bradykinin generation. Bradykinin promoted cell proliferation, cell cycle and matrix-metalloproteinase-2(MMP-2) activity, and increased intracellular expressions of nuclear-factor-kappa-B(NF-κB), focal-adhesion-kinase(FAK), transforming-growth-factor-β(TGF-β), P38, P53 of GFs. MC-chymase promotes bradykinin production to stimulate GFs and to continue inflammation during CP development. A new BK-generation cascade found in this study provides a new basis for the pathogenesis of CP and the mechanism of continuous inflammation. The activation of MC-chymase/bradykinin-generation cascade depends on HMWK level and MC-chymase activity under inflammatory condition. MC-chymase contributes to bradykinin production, mediating the cross-talks between MCs and GFs. MC-chymase can be used as a therapeutic target and a salivary biomarker in this case.
Keywords: Bradykinin; Chronic periodontitis; Gingival fibroblast; HMWK; Mast cell chymase; Saliva.
Copyright © 2021. Published by Elsevier B.V.