Background: Extremely rare progressive diseases like Sedaghatian-type Spondylometaphyseal Dysplasia (SSMD) can be neonatally lethal and therefore go undiagnosed or are difficult to treat. Recent sequencing efforts have linked this disease to mutations in GPX4, with consequences in the resulting enzyme, glutathione peroxidase 4. This offers potential diagnostic and therapeutic avenues for those suffering from this disease, though the steps toward these treatments is often convoluted, expensive, and time-consuming.
Main body: The CureGPX4 organization was developed to promote awareness of GPX4-related diseases like SSMD, as well as support research that could lead to essential therapeutics for patients. We provide an overview of the 21 published SSMD cases and have compiled additional sequencing data for four previously unpublished individuals to illustrate the genetic component of SSMD, and the role of sequencing data in diagnosis. We outline in detail the steps CureGPX4 has taken to reach milestones of team creation, disease understanding, drug repurposing, and design of future studies.
Conclusion: The primary aim of this review is to provide a roadmap for therapy development for rare, ultra-rare, and difficult to diagnose diseases, as well as increase awareness of the genetic component of SSMD. This work will offer a better understanding of GPx4-related diseases, and help guide researchers, clinicians, and patients interested in other rare diseases find a path towards treatments.
Keywords: GPX4; Glutathione peroxidase 4; Rare genetic disorder; Roadmap; SSMD; Sedaghatian-type spondylometaphyseal dysplasia; Therapy development; Ultra-rare disease.
© 2021. The Author(s).