Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. A well-balanced diet containing adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, smoking cessation, and limited alcohol intake are important to maintain bone health. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in postmenopausal women who are at high risk for fractures. Newer anabolic therapies including teriparatide, abaloparatide, and romosozumab have emerged for use in severe osteoporosis.
Keywords: Bone loss; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; Fracture; Menopause; Osteoporosis.
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