Update on Osteoporosis Screening and Management

Med Clin North Am. 2021 Nov;105(6):1117-1134. doi: 10.1016/j.mcna.2021.05.016. Epub 2021 Sep 8.


Osteoporosis is a metabolic bone disease characterized by low bone mass and microarchitectural deterioration of bone tissue leading to an increased risk of fragility fractures. Central dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry measurements are the gold standard for determining bone mineral density. A well-balanced diet containing adequate amounts of calcium and vitamin D, exercise, smoking cessation, and limited alcohol intake are important to maintain bone health. Pharmacologic agents should be recommended in postmenopausal women who are at high risk for fractures. Newer anabolic therapies including teriparatide, abaloparatide, and romosozumab have emerged for use in severe osteoporosis.

Keywords: Bone loss; Dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry; Fracture; Menopause; Osteoporosis.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Absorptiometry, Photon
  • Accidental Falls / prevention & control
  • Aging / physiology
  • Bone Density
  • Bone Density Conservation Agents / therapeutic use
  • Diet
  • Exercise
  • Female
  • Fractures, Bone / epidemiology
  • Humans
  • Menopause / physiology
  • Middle Aged
  • Osteoporosis / diagnosis*
  • Osteoporosis / drug therapy
  • Osteoporosis / epidemiology
  • Osteoporosis / physiopathology*
  • Osteoporosis, Postmenopausal
  • Racial Groups
  • Risk Factors
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators / therapeutic use


  • Bone Density Conservation Agents
  • Selective Estrogen Receptor Modulators