Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is a systemic autoimmune disease. Synovial hyperplasia and persistent inflammation serve as its typical pathological manifestations, which ultimately lead to joint destruction and function loss. Both clinical observations and metabolomics studies have revealed the prevalence of metabolic disorders in RA. In inflammatory immune microenvironments, energy metabolism is profoundly changed. Increasingly evidences suggest that this abnormality is involved in the occurrence and development of RA-related inflammation. Unsurprisingly, many energy metabolism sensors have been confirmed with immunoregulatory properties. As a representative, silent information regulator type 1 (Sirt1) controls many aspects of immune cells, such as cell lifespan, polarization, and secretion by functioning as a transcriptional regulator. Because of the profound clinical implication, researches on Sirt1 in the regulation of energy metabolism and immune functions under RA conditions have gradually gained momentum. This signaling balances glycolysis, lipid metabolism and insulin secretion orchestrating with other metabolism sensors, and consequently affects immune milieu through a so-called metabolism-immune feedback mechanism. This article reviews the involvement of Sirt1 in RA by discussing its impacts on energy metabolism and immune functions, and specially highlights the potential of Sirt1-targeting anti-rheumatic regimens. It also provides a theoretical basis for clarifying the mystery about the high incidence of metabolic complications in RA patients and identifying new anti-rheumatic reagents.
Keywords: Energy metabolism; Immune cells; NF-κB; Rheumatoid arthritis; Sirt1.
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