DNA topoisomerases regulate the topological state of DNA, relaxing DNA supercoils and resolving catenanes and knots that result from biologic processes, such as transcription and replication. DNA topoisomerase II (TOP2) enzymes achieve this by binding DNA and introducing an enzyme-bridged DNA double-strand break (DSB) where each protomer of the dimeric enzyme is covalently attached to the 5' end of the cleaved DNA via an active site tyrosine phosphodiester linkage. The enzyme then passes a second DNA duplex through the DNA break, before religation and release of the enzyme. However, this activity is potentially hazardous to the cell, as failure to complete religation leads to persistent TOP2 protein-DNA covalent complexes, which are cytotoxic. Indeed, this property of topoisomerase has been exploited in cancer therapy in the form of topoisomerase poisons which block the religation stage of the reaction cycle, leading to an accumulation of topoisomerase-DNA adducts. A number of parallel cellular processes have been identified that lead to removal of these covalent TOP2-DNA complexes, facilitating repair of the resulting protein-free DSB by standard DNA repair pathways. These pathways presumably arose to repair spontaneous stalled or poisoned TOP2-DNA complexes, but understanding their mechanisms also has implications for cancer therapy, particularly resistance to anti-cancer TOP2 poisons and the genotoxic side effects of these drugs. Here, we review recent progress in the understanding of the processing of TOP2 DNA covalent complexes, the basic components and mechanisms, as well as the additional layer of complexity posed by the post-translational modifications that modulate these pathways. SIGNIFICANCE STATEMENT: Multiple pathways have been reported for removal and repair of TOP2-DNA covalent complexes to ensure the timely and efficient repair of TOP2-DNA covalent adducts to protect the genome. Post-translational modifications, such as ubiquitination and SUMOylation, are involved in the regulation of TOP2-DNA complex repair. Small molecule inhibitors of these post-translational modifications may help to improve outcomes of TOP2 poison chemotherapy, for example by increasing TOP2 poison cytotoxicity and reducing genotoxicity, but this remains to be determined.
Copyright © 2021 by The American Society for Pharmacology and Experimental Therapeutics.