Progressive muscular weakness, hypotonia and atrophy are among the cardinal signs of the Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome but have not been extensively investigated. Our study focused on 6 related patients who are members of an inbred population. Muscle biopsies revealed myopathic alterations with variation of fiber size, rounding, degeneration and regeneration of fibers, internalization of nuclei and endomysial fat and fibrosis. Most patients had elevated serum creatine kinase levels. One patient revealed endstage neuromuscular disease and had normal serum creatine kinase levels. Of particular interest was the finding of conspicuous myopathy in 2 young children. Thus far, it has not been appreciated that myopathy represents an early sign of the Marinesco-Sjogren syndrome.