COVID-19 in children. II: Pathogenesis, disease spectrum and management

J Paediatr Child Health. 2022 Jan;58(1):46-53. doi: 10.1111/jpc.15811. Epub 2021 Oct 25.


The global disruption of the COVID-19 pandemic has impacted the life of every child either directly or indirectly. This review explores the pathophysiology, immune response, clinical presentation and treatment of COVID-19 in children, summarising the most up-to-date data including recent developments regarding variants of concern. The acute infection with SARS-CoV-2 is generally mild in children, whilst the post-infectious manifestations, including paediatric inflammatory multisystem syndrome temporally associated with SARS-CoV-2 (PIMS-TS) and 'long COVID' in children, are more complex. Given that most research on COVID-19 has focused on adult cohorts and that clinical manifestations, treatment availability and impacts differ markedly in children, research that specifically examines COVID-19 in children needs to be prioritised.

Keywords: COVID-19; PIMS-TS; SARS-CoV-2; management; virology.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • COVID-19* / complications
  • Child
  • Humans
  • Pandemics
  • Post-Acute COVID-19 Syndrome
  • SARS-CoV-2
  • Systemic Inflammatory Response Syndrome

Supplementary concepts

  • pediatric multisystem inflammatory disease, COVID-19 related