Squamous Cell Carcinoma Arising from Perianal Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor (Giant Condyloma Acuminatum): Comprehensive Literature Review

J Gastrointest Cancer. 2022 Dec;53(4):1083-1092. doi: 10.1007/s12029-021-00713-y. Epub 2021 Oct 25.


Purpose: This study aims to provide an overview of the literature on carcinoma arising from giant perianal condyloma acuminatum.

Methods: We present a new case of squamous cell carcinoma arising from giant perianal condyloma acuminatum. We also conducted a systematic search of the medical literature using PubMed, Medline, Google, and Google Scholar related to carcinoma arising from giant perianal condyloma acuminatum. The following search terms were used in various combinations: condyloma acuminatum, giant condyloma acuminatum, Buschke-Lowenstein tumor, squamous cell carcinoma, and verrucous carcinoma. The search included articles published before in the English language November 2020.

Results: A total of 55 article concerning 97 patients with carcinoma (squamous cell carcinoma, verrucous carcinoma, basaloid cell carcinoma, carcinoma insitu) arising from giant perianal condyloma acuminatum meeting the aforementioned criteria were included. The patients were aged from 24 to 82 years (median: 49.6, IQR: 21); 20 were female (median age: 52.5, IQR: 20.5), and 75 were male (median age: 53, IQR: 17.5). The gender data of the remaining two patients could not be obtained. The histopathological features of tumors arising from giant condyloma acuminatum are as follows: squamous cell carcinoma (n = 56), squamous cell carcinoma in situ (n = 16), verrucous carcinoma (n = 19) and basaloid cell carcinoma (n = 1), squamous cell carcinoma + verrucous carcinoma (n = 1), squamous cell carcinoma + squamous cell carcinoma in situ (n = 1), squamous cell carcinoma + basaloid cell carcinoma (n = 1) and malignant behavior (n = 2).

Conclusion: Giant condyloma acuminatum is a rare variant of anogenital warts. It is known that this tumor, which is mostly thought to be benign, has a high potential for local recurrence and transformation into invasive cancer. Therefore, it is vital that the tumor is resected with clean surgical margins, even if it looks benign, and that aggressive treatment options are not avoided when necessary.

Keywords: Buschke-Lowenstein tumor; Condyloma acuminatum; Human papilloma virus; Squamous cell carcinoma; Verrucous carcinoma.

Publication types

  • Case Reports
  • Review
  • Systematic Review

MeSH terms

  • Anus Neoplasms* / pathology
  • Anus Neoplasms* / surgery
  • Buschke-Lowenstein Tumor* / surgery
  • Carcinoma, Squamous Cell* / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Verrucous* / diagnosis
  • Carcinoma, Verrucous* / pathology
  • Carcinoma, Verrucous* / surgery
  • Condylomata Acuminata* / diagnosis
  • Condylomata Acuminata* / pathology
  • Condylomata Acuminata* / surgery
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Middle Aged