Emergence of Resistance in HIV-1 Integrase with Dolutegravir Treatment in a Pediatric Population from the IMPAACT P1093 Study

Antimicrob Agents Chemother. 2022 Jan 18;66(1):e0164521. doi: 10.1128/AAC.01645-21. Epub 2021 Oct 25.


P1093 is a multicenter, open-label, phase I/II study of pharmacokinetics, safety, and tolerability of dolutegravir plus an optimized background regimen in pediatric participants aged 4 weeks to <18 years with HIV-1. Most participants were highly treatment experienced. We report the mechanisms of emergent integrase strand transfer inhibitor (INSTI) resistance among adolescents and children receiving dolutegravir. Plasma was collected at screening and near protocol-defined virologic failure (PDVF) for population-level and, for some samples, clonal-level integrase genotyping, phenotyping, and replication capacity. HIV-1 RNA was assessed in all available plasma samples. Phylogenetic analysis of clonal integrase sequences and homology modeling of HIV-1 intasome complexes containing resistance-associated substitutions were performed. Treatment-emergent INSTI resistance was detected in 8 participants who met PDVF criteria. The rare INSTI resistance-associated substitution G118R or R263K developed in 6 participants. The on-study secondary integrase substitution E157Q or L74I was observed in 2 participants. G118R reduced dolutegravir susceptibility and integrase replication capacity more than R263K and demonstrated greater reduction in susceptibility and integrase replication capacity when present with specific secondary integrase substitutions, including L74M, T66I, and E138E/K. Continuing evolution after R263K acquisition led to reduced dolutegravir susceptibility and integrase replication capacity. Structural examination revealed potential mechanisms for G118R- and R263K-mediated INSTI resistance. G118R and R263K INSTI resistance substitutions, which are distinct to second-generation INSTIs, were detected in adolescents and children with prior virologic failure who received dolutegravir. This study provides additional molecular and structural characterization of integrase to aid in the understanding of INSTI resistance mechanisms in antiretroviral-experienced populations. (This study has been registered at ClinicalTrials.gov under identifier NCT01302847.).

Keywords: HIV-1; dolutegravir; integrase strand transfer inhibitor; pediatric HIV.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial, Phase I
  • Clinical Trial, Phase II
  • Multicenter Study
  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Adolescent
  • Child
  • Drug Resistance, Viral / genetics
  • HIV Infections* / drug therapy
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors* / pharmacology
  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors* / therapeutic use
  • HIV Integrase* / genetics
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring / pharmacology
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring / therapeutic use
  • Humans
  • Infant
  • Oxazines / pharmacology
  • Phylogeny
  • Piperazines
  • Pyridones / pharmacology


  • HIV Integrase Inhibitors
  • Heterocyclic Compounds, 3-Ring
  • Oxazines
  • Piperazines
  • Pyridones
  • dolutegravir
  • HIV Integrase
  • p31 integrase protein, Human immunodeficiency virus 1

Associated data

  • ClinicalTrials.gov/NCT01302847