In-Line Detection with Microfluidic Bulk Acoustic Wave Resonator Gas Sensor for Gas Chromatography

Sensors (Basel). 2021 Oct 13;21(20):6800. doi: 10.3390/s21206800.


A microfluidic film bulk acoustic wave resonator gas sensor (mFBAR) adapted specifically as an in-line detector in gas chromatography was described. This miniaturized vapor sensor was a non-destructive detector with very low dead volume (0.02 μL). It was prepared by enclosing the resonator in a microfluidic channel on a chip with dimensions of only 15 mm × 15 mm × 1 mm. The device with polymer coating showed satisfactory performance in the detection of organophosphorus compound, demonstrating a very low detection limit (a dozen parts per billion) with relatively short response time (about fifteen seconds) toward the simulant of chemical warfare agent, dimethyl methylphosphonate. The in-line detection of the mFBAR sensor with FID was constructed and employed to directly measure the concentration profile on the solid surface by the mFBAR with the controlled concentration profile in the mobile phase at the same time. The difference of peak-maximum position between mobile phase and solid phase could be a convenient indicator to measure mass transfer rate. With the response of the mFBAR and FID obtained in one injection, an injection mass-independent parameter can be calculated and used to identify the analyte of interest.

Keywords: bulk acoustic wave resonator; in-line detection; microfluidic channel; multi-dimensional gas chromatography.

MeSH terms

  • Chemical Warfare Agents* / analysis
  • Chromatography, Gas
  • Gases
  • Microfluidics*
  • Sound


  • Chemical Warfare Agents
  • Gases