Prevention of recurrent respiratory infections : Inter-society Consensus

Ital J Pediatr. 2021 Oct 25;47(1):211. doi: 10.1186/s13052-021-01150-0.


Recurrent respiratory infections (RRIs) are a common clinical condition in children, in fact about 25% of children under 1 year and 6% of children during the first 6 years of life have RRIs. In most cases, infections occur with mild clinical manifestations and the frequency of episodes tends to decrease over time with a complete resolution by 12 years of age. However, RRIs significantly reduce child and family quality of life and lead to significant medical and social costs.Despite the importance of this condition, there is currently no agreed definition of the term RRIs in the literature, especially concerning the frequency and type of infectious episodes to be considered. The aim of this consensus document is to propose an updated definition and provide recommendations with the intent of guiding the physician in the complex process of diagnosis, management and prevention of RRIs.

Keywords: Children; Immune system; Prevention; Recurrent respiratory infections.

Publication types

  • Consensus Development Conference

MeSH terms

  • Adenoidectomy
  • Adjuvants, Immunologic / therapeutic use
  • Administration, Intranasal
  • Algorithms
  • Antibiotic Prophylaxis
  • Antioxidants / administration & dosage
  • Child
  • Complementary Therapies
  • Humans
  • Hyaluronic Acid / administration & dosage
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines
  • Prebiotics
  • Probiotics / therapeutic use
  • Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid / analogs & derivatives
  • Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid / therapeutic use
  • Recurrence
  • Respiratory Tract Infections / prevention & control*
  • Resveratrol / administration & dosage
  • Thiazolidines / therapeutic use
  • Tonsillectomy
  • Vitamins / therapeutic use


  • Adjuvants, Immunologic
  • Antioxidants
  • Influenza Vaccines
  • Pneumococcal Vaccines
  • Prebiotics
  • Thiazolidines
  • Vitamins
  • pidotimod
  • Hyaluronic Acid
  • Resveratrol
  • Pyrrolidonecarboxylic Acid