PIM1 phosphorylation of the androgen receptor and 14-3-3 ζ regulates gene transcription in prostate cancer

Commun Biol. 2021 Oct 25;4(1):1221. doi: 10.1038/s42003-021-02723-9.


PIM1 is a serine/threonine kinase over-expressed in prostate cancer. We have previously shown that PIM1 phosphorylates the androgen receptor (AR), the primary therapeutic target in prostate cancer, at serine 213 (pS213), which alters expression of select AR target genes. Therefore, we sought to investigate the mechanism whereby PIM1 phosphorylation of AR alters its transcriptional activity. We previously identified the AR co-activator, 14-3-3 ζ, as an endogenous PIM1 substrate in LNCaP cells. Here, we show that PIM1 phosphorylation of AR and 14-3-3 ζ coordinates their interaction, and that they extensively occupy the same sites on chromatin in an AR-dependent manner. Their occupancy at a number of genes involved in cell migration and invasion results in a PIM1-dependent increase in the expression of these genes. We also use rapid immunoprecipitation and mass spectrometry of endogenous proteins on chromatin (RIME), to find that select AR co-regulators, such as hnRNPK and TRIM28, interact with both AR and 14-3-3 ζ in PIM1 over-expressing cells. We conclude that PIM1 phosphorylation of AR and 14-3-3 ζ coordinates their interaction, which in turn recruits additional co-regulatory proteins to alter AR transcriptional activity.

Publication types

  • Research Support, N.I.H., Extramural
  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • 14-3-3 Proteins / genetics*
  • 14-3-3 Proteins / metabolism
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Phosphorylation
  • Prostatic Neoplasms / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1 / genetics*
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1 / metabolism
  • Receptors, Androgen / genetics*
  • Receptors, Androgen / metabolism
  • Transcription, Genetic


  • 14-3-3 Proteins
  • AR protein, human
  • Receptors, Androgen
  • YWHAB protein, human
  • PIM1 protein, human
  • Proto-Oncogene Proteins c-pim-1