The Role of PPAR-γ in Allergic Disease

Curr Allergy Asthma Rep. 2021 Oct 25;21(11):45. doi: 10.1007/s11882-021-01022-x.


Purpose of review: The incidence of allergic diseases such as asthma, rhinitis and atopic dermatitis has risen at an alarming rate over the last century. Thus, there is a clear need to understand the critical factors that drive such pathologic immune responses. Peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ (PPAR-γ) is a nuclear receptor that has emerged as an important regulator of multiple cell types involved in the inflammatory response to allergens; from airway epithelial cells to T Helper (TH) cells.

Recent findings: Initial studies suggested that agonists of PPAR-γ could be employed to temper allergic inflammation, suppressing pro-inflammatory gene expression programs in epithelial cells. Several lines of work now suggest that PPAR-γ plays an essential in promoting 'type 2' immune responses that are typically associated with allergic disease. PPAR-γ has been found to promote the functions of TH2 cells, type 2 innate lymphoid cells, M2 macrophages and dendritic cells, regulating lipid metabolism and directly inducing effector gene expression. Moreover, preclinical models of allergy in gene-targeted mice have increasingly implicated PPAR-γ in driving allergic inflammation. Herein, we highlight the contrasting roles of PPAR-γ in allergic inflammation and hypothesize that the availability of environmental ligands for PPAR-γ may be at the heart of the rise in allergic diseases worldwide.

Keywords: Allergy; Asthma; ILC2; Lipid metabolism; PPAR-γ; TH2.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't
  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Asthma*
  • Humans
  • Hypersensitivity*
  • Immunity, Innate
  • Lymphocytes
  • Mice
  • PPAR gamma / genetics
  • PPAR gamma / metabolism*


  • PPAR gamma
  • Pparg protein, mouse