Overview of Helicobacter pylori Infection: Clinical Features, Treatment, and Nutritional Aspects

Diseases. 2021 Sep 23;9(4):66. doi: 10.3390/diseases9040066.


Helicobacter pylori (H. pylori) is a 0.5-1 µm wide, 2-4 µm long, short helical, S-shaped Gram-negative microorganism. It is mostly found in the pyloric region of the stomach and causes chronic gastric infection. It is estimated that these bacteria infect more than half of the world's population. The mode of transmission and infection of H. pylori is still not known exactly, but the faecal-oral and oral-oral routes via water or food consumption are thought to be a very common cause. In the last three decades, research interest has increased regarding the pathogenicity, microbial activity, genetic predisposition, and clinical treatments to understand the severity of gastric atrophy and gastric cancer caused by H. pylori. Studies have suggested a relationship between H. pylori infection and malabsorption of essential micronutrients, and noted that H. pylori infection may affect the prevalence of malnutrition in some risk groups. On the other hand, dietary factors may play a considerably important role in H. pylori infection, and it has been reported that an adequate and balanced diet, especially high fruit and vegetable consumption and low processed salty food consumption, has a protective effect against the outcomes of H. pylori infection. The present review provides an overview of all aspects of H. pylori infection, such as clinical features, treatment, and nutrition.

Keywords: H. pylori; clinical treatment; diet; infection; nutrition.

Publication types

  • Review