Background: Galectin-9 (Gal-9) is a multifunctional lectin that moderates inflammation and organ damage. In this study, we tested whether Gal-9 has a protective role in the pathogenesis of endotoxemic acute kidney injury.
Methods: We examined the levels of Gal-9 in control mice after lipopolysaccharide (LPS) administration. We developed Gal-9 knockout (KO) mice that lack Gal-9 systemically and evaluated the role of Gal-9 in LPS-induced proinflammatory cytokines, vascular permeability, and renal injury.
Results: Gal-9 levels were increased in the plasma, kidney, and spleen within 4 h after LPS administration to wild-type mice. Gal-9 deficiency did not affect the LPS-induced increase in plasma tumor necrosis factor-α levels at 1 h or vascular permeability at 6 h. Lower urine volume and reduced creatinine clearance were observed in Gal-9-KO mice compared with wild-type mice after LPS administration. Gal-9-KO mice had limited improvement in urine volume after fluid resuscitation compared with wild-type mice. LPS reduced the body temperature 12 h after its administration. Hypothermia had disappeared in wild-type mice by 24 h, whereas it was sustained until 24 h in Gal-9-KO mice. Importantly, maintaining body temperature in Gal-9-KO mice improved the response of urine flow to fluid resuscitation.
Conclusion: Deficiency in Gal-9 worsened LPS-induced hypothermia and kidney injury in mice. The accelerated hypothermia induced by Gal-9 deficiency contributed to the blunted response to fluid resuscitation.
Keywords: Acute kidney injury (AKI); Galectin-9; Hypothermia; Lipopolysaccharide (LPS).
© 2021. Japanese Society of Nephrology.