Ocular toxoplasmosis, an overview focusing on clinical aspects

Acta Trop. 2022 Jan;225:106180. doi: 10.1016/j.actatropica.2021.106180. Epub 2021 Oct 23.


Toxoplasma gondii is a widespread protozoan parasite infecting approximately one third of the world population. After proliferation of tachyzoites during the acute stage, the parasite forms tissue cysts in various anatomical sites and establishes chronic infection. Nowadays the nature of the interplay between the protozoan and its human host remains elusive. This is clearly evident in ocular toxoplasmosis, in which the parasite establishes an ambivalent relationship with the eye, manipulating the immune response and inducing variable initial lesions and further relapses. This review will focus on epidemiology and environmental, parasite and host related risk factors, clinical manifestations and laboratory findings, treatment and prophylaxis approaches in ocular toxoplasmosis. An image collection of patients referred to the Unit of Ophthalmology of Pisa's Hospital will be presented, too.

Keywords: Chronicity; Eye; Host; Immune status; Parasite.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Humans
  • Toxoplasma*
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular* / diagnosis
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular* / drug therapy
  • Toxoplasmosis, Ocular* / epidemiology