The Impact of a Population-Based System of Care Intervention on Enhanced Prenatal Care and Service Utilization Among Medicaid-Insured Pregnant Women

Am J Prev Med. 2022 Feb;62(2):e117-e127. doi: 10.1016/j.amepre.2021.08.012. Epub 2021 Oct 24.


Introduction: Enhanced prenatal/postnatal care home visiting programs for Medicaid-insured women have significant positive impacts on care and health outcomes. However, enhanced prenatal care participation rates are typically low, enrolling <30% of eligible women. This study investigates the impacts of a population-based systems approach on timely enhanced prenatal care participation and other healthcare utilization.

Methods: This quasi-experimental, population-based, difference-in-differences study used linked birth certificates, Medicaid claims, and enhanced prenatal care data from complete statewide Medicaid birth cohorts (2009 to 2015), and was analyzed in 2019-2020. The population-based system intervention included cross-agency leadership and work groups, delivery system redesign with clinical-community linkages, increased enhanced prenatal care-Community Health Worker care, and patient empowerment. Outcomes included enhanced prenatal care participation and early participation, prenatal care adequacy, emergency department contact, and postpartum care.

Results: Enhanced prenatal care (7.4 percentage points, 95% CI=6.3, 8.5) and first trimester enhanced prenatal care (12.4 percentage points, 95% CI=10.2, 14.5) increased among women served by practices with established clincial-community linkages, relative to that among the comparator group. First trimester enhanced prenatal care improved in the county (17.9, 95% CI=15.7, 20.0), emergency department contact decreased in the practices (-11.1, 95% CI= -12.3, -9.9), and postpartum care improved in the county (7.1, 95% CI=6.0, 8.2). Enhanced prenatal care participation for Black women served by the practices improved (4.4, 95% CI=2.2, 6.6) as well as early enhanced prenatal care (12.3, 95% CI=9.0, 15.6) and use of postpartum care (10.4, 95% CI=8.3, 12.4).

Conclusions: A population systems approach improved selected enhanced prenatal care participation and service utilization for Medicaid-insured women in a county population, those in practices with established clinical-community linkages, and Black women.

Publication types

  • Research Support, U.S. Gov't, P.H.S.

MeSH terms

  • Birth Cohort
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Medicaid*
  • Patient Acceptance of Health Care
  • Pregnancy
  • Pregnant Women
  • Prenatal Care*
  • United States