Challenges in the Diagnosis of Intraocular Lymphoma

Turk J Ophthalmol. 2021 Oct 26;51(5):317-325. doi: 10.4274/tjo.galenos.2021.50607.

Abstract

Intraocular lymphomas are among the rare malignancies that present with a wide variety of clinical manifestations. Differential diagnosis can be very troublesome due to its mimicking nature, insidious disease onset, and partial treatment response to steroids. The most important step in diagnosis is a high index of suspicion. Signs of the disease are now easier to detect using multimodal imaging techniques. In this case series, we reviewed the clinical characteristics of two women aged 70 and 71 years and a 72-year-old man with intraocular lymphoma and described their multimodal imaging findings in detail. Bilateral eye involvement was present in all three cases at our first ophthalmological examination. While the disease first presented with ocular involvement in two of the three cases, ocular involvement was detected seven years after initial heart involvement in one patient. All three patients had diffuse large B-cell lymphomas (one diagnosed with retinal biopsy, one with conjunctival biopsy, and the remaining with stereotactic brain biopsy). Intraocular lymphoma should be diagnosed and treated using a multidisciplinary approach, and we share our experience in this case series.

Keywords: Eye; conjunctiva; lymphoma; optical coherence tomography; optical coherence tomography angiography; retina; retinal biopsy.