A Clinical Trial Evaluating the Usefulness of Tailored Antimicrobial Prophylaxis Using Rectal-culture Screening Media Prior to Transrectal Prostate Biopsy: A Multicenter, Randomized Controlled Trial

Acta Med Okayama. 2021;75(5):663-667. doi: 10.18926/AMO/62782.


The aim of this report is to introduce an on-going, multicenter, randomized controlled trial to evaluate whether tailored antimicrobial prophylaxis guided by rectal culture screening prevents acute bacterial prostatitis following transrectal prostate biopsy (TRPB). Patients will be randomized into an intervention or non-intervention group; tazobactam-piperacillin or levofloxacin will be prophylactically administered according to the results of rectal culture prior to TRPB in the intervention group whereas levofloxacin will be routinely given in the non-intervention group. The primary endpoint is the occurrence rate of acute bacterial prostatitis after TRPB. Recruitment begins in April, 2021 and the target total sample size is 5,100 participants.

Keywords: antibiotic prophylaxis; extended-spectrum beta-lactamase; fluoroquinolone-resistant; prostate biopsy; selective culture media.

Publication types

  • Clinical Trial Protocol

MeSH terms

  • Anti-Bacterial Agents / therapeutic use*
  • Bacterial Infections / diagnosis
  • Bacterial Infections / drug therapy
  • Bacterial Infections / microbiology*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Multicenter Studies as Topic*
  • Prostatic Diseases / drug therapy
  • Prostatic Diseases / microbiology*
  • Prostatic Diseases / pathology
  • Randomized Controlled Trials as Topic*


  • Anti-Bacterial Agents