In the phase III RESTORE-IMI 2 study (ClinicalTrials.gov: NCT02493764), the combination antibacterial agent imipenem/cilastatin/relebactam (IMI/REL) demonstrated noninferiority to piperacillin/tazobactam for the end points of all-cause mortality at day 28 and favorable clinical response at the early follow-up visit in adult participants with gram-negative hospital-acquired bacterial pneumonia/ventilator-associated bacterial pneumonia (HABP/VABP). Existing population pharmacokinetic models for imipenem (IPM) and REL were updated using data from patients with HABP/VABP from RESTORE-IMI 2. Creatinine clearance (CrCl), body weight, infection type, and ventilation status were significant covariates in the updated model. The following simulations were performed to calculate the pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic joint probability of target attainment among patients with HABP/VABP and varying degrees of renal function: augmented renal clearance (CrCl ≥150 ml/min), normal renal function (CrCl ≥90 to <150 ml/min), renal impairment (mild, CrCl ≥60 to <90 ml/min; moderate, CrCl ≥30 to <60 ml/min; or severe, CrCl ≥15 to <30 ml/min), and end-stage renal disease (CrCl <15 ml/min). At the recommended IMI/REL dosing regimens across renal categories, greater than 90% of patients in all renal function groups were predicted to achieve joint pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic targets at a minimum inhibitory concentration breakpoint of ≤2 μg/ml, regardless of ventilation status. This modeling and simulation analysis supports use of the recommended IMI/REL dosing regimens, adjusted based on renal function, in patients with HABP/VABP.
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