Objective: To observe the degree of airway collapse at varying levels of continuous positive airway pressure (CPAP) during drug pediatric induced sleep endoscopy.
Methods: Using our institutional anesthesia protocol for pediatric DISE procedures, patients were anesthetized followed by evaluation of the nasal airway, nasopharynx, velum, hypopharynx, arytenoids, tongue base, and epiglottis. CPAP titration was performed under vision to evaluate the degree of airway collapse at the level of the velum. Comparison was made with pre-operative polysomnography findings.
Results: Twelve pediatric patients underwent DISE with intraoperative CPAP titration. In 7/12 patients, DISE observed CPAP titration was beneficial in elucidating areas of obstruction that were observed at pressures beyond those recommended during preoperative sleep study titrations. In 3 patients, DISE observations provided a basis for evaluation in children not compliant with sleep study CPAP titration testing. With regard to regions effected, airway collapse was observed at the velum and oropharynx to a greater degree when compared with the tongue base and epiglottis.
Conclusion: DISE evaluation of the pediatric patient with obstructive sleep apnea may present a source for further patient evaluation with respect to CPAP optimization and severity of OSA assessment, particularly in syndromic patients.
Keywords: CPAP; pediatric; sleep; sleep endoscopy; titration.