Diabetes mellitus: an overview of the types, symptoms, complications and management

Nurs Stand. 2022 Jan 5;37(1):61-66. doi: 10.7748/ns.2021.e11709. Epub 2021 Oct 28.


The incidence of diabetes mellitus is rapidly increasing, and this condition often results in significant metabolic disease and severe complications. Nurses have a crucial role in monitoring, educating and supporting people with diabetes, as well as their families and significant others. This article provides an overview of the main types and common symptoms of diabetes, its acute and long-term complications and its management. It also outlines the nurse's role in diabetes care, which frequently includes assessing and empowering patients.

Keywords: blood glucose; clinical; diabetes; diabetic foot ulcers; diabetic ketoacidosis; glycaemic control; hyperglycaemia; hypoglycaemia; insulin; type 1 diabetes; type 2 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Diabetes Mellitus* / diagnosis
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / epidemiology
  • Diabetes Mellitus* / therapy
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1*
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents


  • Hypoglycemic Agents