Pseudoachondroplasia (PSACH) and multiple epiphyseal dysplasia type 1 (MED1) are two rare skeletal disorders caused by cartilage oligomeric matrix protein (COMP) variants. This study aims to analyze the genotype and phenotype of patients with COMP variants. Clinical information for 14 probands was collected; DNA was extracted from blood for COMP variant detection. Clinical manifestations and radiology scoring systems were established to evaluate the severity of each patient's condition. Serum COMP levels in PSACH patients and healthy subjects were measured. Thirty-nine patients were included, along with 12 PSACH probands and two MED1 probands. Disproportionate short stature, waddling gait, early-onset osteoarthritis and skeletal deformities were the most common features. The height Z-score of PSACH patients correlated negatively with age at evaluation (r = - 0.603, p = 0.01) and the clinical manifestation score (r = - 0.556, p = 0.039). Over 50% of the PSACH patients were overweight/obese. The median serum COMP level in PSACH patients was 16.75 ng/ml, which was significantly lower than that in healthy controls (98.53 ng/ml; p < 0.001). The condition of MED1 patients was better than that of PSACH patients. Four novel variants of COMP were detected: c.874T>C, c.1123_1134del, c.1531G>A, and c.1576G>T. Height Z-scores and serum COMP levels were significantly lower in patients carrying mutations located in calmodulin-like domains 6, 7, and 8. As the two phenotypes overlap to different degrees, PSACH and MED1 are suggested to combine to produce "spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, COMP type". Clinical manifestations and radiology scoring systems, serum COMP levels and genotype are important for evaluating patient condition severity.
Keywords: COMP; Multiple epiphyseal dysplasia type 1; Pseudoachondroplasia; Serum; Spondyloepiphyseal dysplasia, COMP type.
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