The role of complete blood count parameters in diagnosing acute appendicitis and measuring the severity of inflammation

Ulus Travma Acil Cerrahi Derg. 2021 Nov;27(6):654-661. doi: 10.14744/tjtes.2020.69195.

Abstract

Background: The diagnosis and severity of acute appendicitis (AA) are still challenging despite all the improvements in diagnosis and treatment. This study aimed to evaluate the efficacy of complete blood count (CBC) parameters in diagnosing AA and measuring severity.

Methods: Data of 521 patients were reviewed retrospectively. Fifty-three patients with CBC results influenced by various reasons were excluded from the study. Age, gender, length of stay, CBC parameters, and histopathological results were examined.

Results: The study included 468 patients: 90 patients with a preliminary diagnosis of AA, not undergoing surgery but receiving medical treatment (Group I), 227 patients with uncomplicated appendicitis (Group II), and 151 patients with complicated appendicitis (Group III). Of the patients, 279 were male (59.6%) and 189 were female (40.4%). The mean age was 33.37±13.05 years. Groups I and III had the lowest and highest white blood cell (WBC), neutrophil, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio (NLR), respectively. There was a statistically significant difference between the groups (p<0.05). The highest and lowest mean platelet volume (MPV) values were in Groups II and III, respectively. There was no statistically significant difference between the groups (p>0.05).

Conclusion: AA is the most common cause of abdominal surgery. The CBC is a cost-effective and easily-accessible test with acceptable diagnostic accuracy. It provides fast results and can be used in the diagnosis of appendicitis. Neutrophil, WBC, and NLR are helpful and useful parameters for physical examination and other diagnostic methods in diagnosing AA and measuring severity. However, the use of MPV is not recommended as it has a low diagnostic rate and contradictory results.

MeSH terms

  • Adult
  • Appendicitis* / diagnosis
  • Blood Cell Count
  • Female
  • Humans
  • Inflammation
  • Leukocyte Count
  • Male
  • Middle Aged
  • Neutrophils
  • Retrospective Studies
  • Young Adult