In vitro Oscillation Patterns Throughout the Hippocampal Formation in a Rodent Model of Epilepsy

Neuroscience. 2021 Dec 15;479:1-21. doi: 10.1016/j.neuroscience.2021.10.020. Epub 2021 Oct 26.


Specific oscillatory patterns are considered biomarkers of pathological neuronal network in brain diseases, such as epilepsy. However, the dynamics of underlying oscillations during the epileptogenesis throughout the hippocampal formation in the temporal lobe epilepsy is not clear. Here, we characterized in vitro oscillatory patterns within the hippocampal formation of epileptic rats, under 4-aminopyridine (4-AP)-induced hyperexcitability and during the spontaneous network activity, at two periods of epileptogenesis. First, at the beginning of epileptic chronic phase, 30 days post-pilocarpine-induced Status Epilepticus (SE). Second, at the established epilepsy, 60 days post-SE. The 4-AP-bathed slices from epileptic rats had increased susceptibility to ictogenesis in CA1 at 30 days post-SE, and in entorhinal cortex and dentate gyrus at 60 days post-SE. Higher power and phase coherence were detected mainly for gamma and/or high frequency oscillations (HFOs), in a region- and stage-specific manner. Interestingly, under spontaneous network activity, even without 4-AP-induced hyperexcitability, slices from epileptic animals already exhibited higher power of gamma and HFOs in different areas of hippocampal formation at both periods of epileptogenesis, and higher phase coherence in fast ripples at 60 days post-SE. These findings reinforce the critical role of gamma and HFOs in each one of the hippocampal formation areas during ongoing neuropathological processes, tuning the neuronal network to epilepsy.

Keywords: coherence; gamma rhythm; high-frequency oscillations; hippocampus; in vitro electrophysiology; synchrony.

Publication types

  • Research Support, Non-U.S. Gov't

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Disease Models, Animal
  • Epilepsy* / chemically induced
  • Epilepsy, Temporal Lobe*
  • Hippocampus
  • Pilocarpine / toxicity
  • Rats
  • Rodentia
  • Status Epilepticus* / chemically induced


  • Pilocarpine