Maturation of Stem Cell-Derived Cardiomyocytes: Foe in Translation Medicine

Int J Stem Cells. 2021 Nov 30;14(4):366-385. doi: 10.15283/ijsc21077.


With the in-depth study of heart development, many human cardiomyocytes (CMs) have been generated in a laboratory environment. CMs derived from pluripotent stem cells (PSCs) have been widely used for a series of applications such as laboratory studies, drug toxicology screening, cardiac disease models, and as an unlimited resource for cell-based cardiac regeneration therapy. However, the low maturity of the induced CMs significantly impedes their applicability. Scientists have been committed to improving the maturation of CMs to achieve the purpose of heart regeneration in the past decades. In this review, we take CMs maturation as the main object of discussion, describe the characteristics of CMs maturation, summarize the key regulatory mechanism of regulating maturation and address the approaches to promote CMs maturation. The maturation of CM is gradually improving due to the incorporation of advanced technologies and is expected to continue.

Keywords: Cardiac maturation; Maturation regulation; Pluripotent stem cell; Regenerative medicine.

Publication types

  • Review