Hormonally Active Adrenal tumors; Challenges and Outcomes for Different Surgical Approaches

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul. 2021 Sep 24;55(3):325-332. doi: 10.14744/SEMB.2021.13845. eCollection 2021.


Objective: The aim of this study is to compare the intraoperative and short-term outcomes of different surgical approaches for hormone active and non-functional adrenal masses.

Methods: The data of 206 patients who underwent adrenal gland surgery in our clinic between 2012 and 2020 were retrospectively analyzed. Pre-operative outpatient clinic records of the patients, imaging methods, laboratory results and surgery records, operation time (OT), amount of bleeding, duration of hospital stay, and complications were evaluated. Patients were divided into two groups as those with non-functional mass (n=80) and those with hormoneactive mass (n=126).

Results: The median age of the patients was 52 (range 19-83) and 77.2% of them were female. Tumor size was larger in hormone active group (p=0.311), and the difference was more pronounced in the pheochromocytoma subgroup (p=0.088). The rate of transition to open surgery was similar in both groups (0.959), and no conversion to laparoscopy or conventional open surgery was performed in robotic cases. The duration of surgery (p=0.669), mean amount of blood loss (p=0.834), and mean hospital stay (p=0.195) were also similar between the two groups. Intraoperative and post-operative complications were similar between two groups (p=0.573 and p=0.415, respectively). Considering the subgroup analysis of the patients in hormone active group; the duration of hospital stay was longer in patients with Cushing syndrome (p=0.001), while there was no difference in OT and estimated blood loss between patients who were operated for Conn, Cushing, and pheochromocytoma (p=0.086 and p=0.099; respectively).

Conclusion: Surgical results of hormone active adrenal masses were found to be similar to non-functional masses. Although the hormonal condition of the mass does not change the difficulty level of the surgical procedure, it may be recommended that the robotic approach be preferred to facilitate manipulation in these masses.

Keywords: Adrenal gland surgery; hormone active adrenal mass; minimally invasive surgery.