Does Pulmonary Hamartoma Increase the Risk of Lung Cancer? Outcomes of 38 Pulmonary Hamartoma Cases

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul. 2021 Sep 24;55(3):344-348. doi: 10.14744/SEMB.2020.06936. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Objectives: Hamartomas are common benign tumors of the lung. Rarely, lung cancer coincidence may occur at the time of diagnosis or in the follow-up period.

Methods: Between 2016 and 2019, 38 patients who underwent a surgical procedure and diagnosed with lung hamartoma were retrospectively evaluated regarding clinicopathological features. Cases were analyzed according to age, sex, radiological findings, localization of nodules, surgical methods, and the coincidence of lung cancer.

Results: The mean age was 50.2±11.1 (range 28-76 years). There were 23 male (60.5%) and 15 female (39.5%) patients. Mean size was 2.7±1.8 (range 0.8-10 cm). In 28 patients, hamartoma was <3 cm in diameter (73.6%). Eighteen hamartomas were localized in the upper lobe (47.4%). Only 6 cases (15.8%) were localized at the central part of the lung. Multiple nodules were reported in 10 cases (26.3%). In 4 cases (10.5%), lung carcinoma and hamartoma were seen together at the time of diagnosis. Video-assisted thoracoscopic surgery (VATS) has been performed in 29 cases (76.3%). As a surgical method, enucleation was performed in 4 cases (10.5%), wedge resection in 28 cases (73.7%), and lobectomy in 6 cases (15.8%). No post-operative mortality appeared in the early follow-up.

Conclusion: Pulmonary hamartomas are usually present as solitary pulmonary nodules with benign radiological findings. VATS wedge resection is a method that can be used safely in diagnosis and treatment. Hamartomas may be associated with lung cancer at the time of diagnosis or follow-up, so it should be kept in mind that a different nodule seen in patients diagnosed with hamartoma may be associated with lung cancer.

Keywords: Lung cancer; pulmonary hamartoma; solitary pulmonary nodule.