Comparison of Risk Factors and Outcomes in Carbapenem-Resistant and Carbapenem-Susceptible Gram-Negative Bacteremia

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul. 2021 Sep 24;55(3):398-404. doi: 10.14744/SEMB.2020.49002. eCollection 2021.


Background: Carbapenem-resistant Gram-negative bacteremia (CR-GNB) is seen with increasing frequency and result in high mortality. The aim of this study was to compare the risk factors and results of carbapenem-resistant and carbapenem-susceptible Gram-negative bacteremia and to determine the factors related to mortality.

Methods: The study was conducted as a retrospective observational comparative case series between June 2016 and November 2017 in Şişli Hamidiye Etfal Training and Research Hospital. The patients were divided into two groups as carbapenem-susceptible and carbapenem-resistant according to antibiotic susceptibility data of blood cultures. The risk factors for the development of carbapenem resistance, length of hospital stay, mortality rates, and mortality related factors were investigated between these two groups.

Results: Two hundred and eleven cases were included in the study. Of these cases, 54 were resistant to carbapenem and 157 were susceptible to carbapenem. Mortality occurred in 60 (28.4%) patients. The 14 and 28 day mortality rates of patients with carbapenem resistance were significantly higher than those without carbapenem resistance. There was no statistically significant difference between two groups in length of stay in the hospital after bacteremia. Pittsburgh bacteremia score, cardiovascular disease, urinary catheterization, and inappropriate empirical antibiotic therapy were the most significant risk factors for mortality.

Conclusions: Carbapenem resistance is associated with increased mortality and inappropriate empirical antibiotic treatment increases mortality. Therefore, patients should be evaluated for risk factors in predicting CR-GNB and treatment for resistant pathogens should be applied in appropriate patients.

Keywords: Bacteremia; carbapenem-resistant; gram-negative; mortality; risk factors.