Adverse Outcomes of Preeclampsia in Previous and Subsequent Pregnancies and the Risk of Recurrence

Sisli Etfal Hastan Tip Bul. 2021 Sep 24;55(3):426-431. doi: 10.14744/SEMB.2020.56650. eCollection 2021.

Abstract

Objectives: We evaluated the fetal and maternal outcomes of pregnant women with preeclampsia who gave birth in our hospital; we also evaluated preeclampsia recurrence rates in these patients and their fetal and maternal outcomes in their subsequent pregnancy.

Methods: In this retrospective cohort study, 126 patients whose medical records were accessed completely and who got pregnant again and gave birth in our hospital were analyzed. The primary aim was to show the recurrence rate of preeclampsia, while the secondary aim was to evaluate the maternal and fetal results of the first pregnancy in which preeclampsia developed and the subsequent pregnancy.

Results: The incidence of preeclampsia was found to be 2.1% in our clinic. The first pregnancy in which preeclampsia developed; 111 (80.2%) pregnancies resulted in a live birth, 7 (5.6%) resulted in termination, and 8 (6.3%) resulted in stillbirth. Neonatal death occurred in 10 (7.9%) pregnancies. While 105 of the subsequent pregnancies resulted in a live birth, 10 (7.9%) resulted in abortion, 9 (7.1%) resulted in stillbirth, and 2 (1.6%) resulted in termination due to preeclampsia. Neonatal death developed in 3 (2.6%) pregnancies. In the subsequent pregnancy, preeclampsia developed in 70 (55.5%) patients and 39 (55.7%) of these had preeclampsia with severe features.

Conclusion: The present study guides us on the risk factors related to preeclampsia and the rate of fetomaternal adverse outcomes and emphasizes the need for strict and regular antenatal follow-up in the subsequent pregnancies of women who have a history preeclampsia. Improvement of maternal and fetal morbidity and mortality in this way is the utmost goal.

Keywords: Preeclampsia; pregnancy; pregnancy outcomes; recurrence risk.