Objective: Endothermal ablation, such as endovenous laser ablation (EVLA) and radiofrequency ablation (RFA), has been increasingly used for treatment of small saphenous vein (SSV) insufficiency. Prior studies have shown recurrence rates of 0% to 10% in incompetent SSVs (ISSVs). The objective of the present study was to determine the efficacy of redo venous ablation for symptomatic recanalized SSVs and to predict the factors related to recanalization.
Methods: A retrospective analysis of 2566 procedures in 1752 patients with chronic venous insufficiency due to ISSVs from 2012 to 2018 was performed, using individual medical record review for data extraction. All 2566 procedures were performed using endothermal ablation for patients in whom initial conservative management had failed. Postoperative duplex ultrasound scans were performed within 3 to 7 days after treatment. We defined successful obliteration as a lack of color flow using postoperative duplex ultrasound. We defined recanalization as the presence of reflux on duplex ultrasound in the target vessel during follow-up. We conducted follow-up examinations every 3 months during the first year and every 6 months subsequently.
Results: Of the 2566 procedures, redo ablation was performed in 91 ISSVs for 86 patients, including 58 women and 28 men. Of the 91 procedures, 54 were performed on the left lower extremity and 37 on the right lower extremity. The mean body mass index was 32.2 ± 7.66 kg/m2. The mean age was 62.4 ± 15.10 years. The CEAP (Clinical, Etiology, Anatomy, and Pathophysiology) class was C1, C2, C3, C4, C5, and C6 for 0, 0, 29, 43, 1, and 18 patients, respectively. The mean maximum diameter of the targeted veins for the redo procedures was 4.51 ± 1.33 mm. Of the 91 procedures, 40 were performed using EVLA and 51 were performed using RFA. The initial technical success was 98.9%. The redo procedures showed an early closure of 96.7%. At a mean follow-up duration of 24.9 ± 14.9 months, the closure rate was 96.5%. No correlation was found between successful obliteration with the redo procedure and age, gender, CEAP class, laterality, EVLA vs RFA, body mass index, or vein diameter.
Conclusions: The rates of successful closure for ISSVs with initial and redo procedures were comparable. These data have validated the potential usefulness of performing redo SSV ablation.
Keywords: Ablation; CVI; EHIT; Redo SSV.
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