Epicardial atrial pacing after the extracardiac Fontan operation: Feasibility of an entirely transvenous approach

J Cardiovasc Electrophysiol. 2022 Jan;33(1):128-133. doi: 10.1111/jce.15285. Epub 2021 Nov 24.


This series describes an innovative technique for pacing in patients with sinus node dysfunction after extracardiac Fontan surgery. This transpulmonary approach to the left atrial epi-myocardium has been successfully applied to three patients at two centers and resulted in excellent acute and midterm pacing characteristics without known complications. The principal advantage of this procedure in comparison to prior iterations is the absence of pacing material within the pulmonary venous atrium, so that future systemic thromboembolism risk is minimized. The transpulmonary approach for permanent atrial pacing offers a novel solution to the unique challenges for patients after extracardiac Fontan operation.

Keywords: Fontan physiology; adult-congenital cardiology; atrial pacing; epicardial pacing; single-ventricle physiology.

Publication types

  • Case Reports

MeSH terms

  • Cardiac Pacing, Artificial / methods
  • Feasibility Studies
  • Fontan Procedure* / adverse effects
  • Heart Defects, Congenital* / surgery
  • Humans
  • Pacemaker, Artificial*
  • Sick Sinus Syndrome / therapy