Flusilazole Induced Cytotoxicity and Inhibition of Neuronal Growth in Differentiated SH-SY5Y Neuroblastoma Cells by All-Trans-Retinoic Acid (Atra)

Turk J Pharm Sci. 2021 Oct 28;18(5):597-603. doi: 10.4274/tjps.galenos.2021.30676.

Abstract

Objectives: Flusilazole (FLUS) is a broad-spectrum organosilicon triazole fungicide used for protecting economically important cereals and orchard fruits. Considering the exposure route of pesticides, pesticide contamination of food is inevitable. Furthermore, excessive exposure to pesticides causes health problems in both target and non-target organisms. It was aimed to evaluate the effects of the triazole fungicide FLUS on cytotoxicity and neurite extension in differentiated SH-SY5Y neuroblastoma cells.

Materials and methods: The SH-SY5Y cells were differentiated into mature neurons using 10-µM all-trans-retinoic acid (RA) treatment for 7 days. Then the differentiated SH-SY5Y cells were treated with 50, 100 and 200 μM FLUS for 24 h. Afterwards, cell viability assays were performed including crystal violet, neutral red cell viability, and lactate dehydrogenase leakage assays. The morphological examinations were performed and neurite lenghts of the cells were measured in all experimental groups.

Results: FLUS treatment induced cytotoxicity in SH-SY5Y cells differentiated with RA. Significant decreases in cell viability percentages were observed. Furthermore, neurite lengths were negatively affected by the treatment of FLUS at the highest concentration.

Conclusion: FLUS is a fungicide widely used in agriculture to protect crops from fungal diseases. However, the intensive use of these compounds causes a potential risk to human and environmental health. According to the results of the study, it can be concluded that high concentrations of FLUS cause neurotoxicity by causing neural cell death and adverse effects on neurite outgrowth in differentiated SH-SY5Y cells. FLUS exposure can cause neuronal degeneration in mammals.

Keywords: Flusilazole; SH-SY5Y cell differentiation; cytotoxicity; neurite growth.