Interventions for the Management of Acute and Chronic Low Back Pain: Revision 2021

J Orthop Sports Phys Ther. 2021 Nov;51(11):CPG1-CPG60. doi: 10.2519/jospt.2021.0304.


Low back pain (LBP) remains a musculoskeletal condition with an adverse societal impact. Globally, LBP is highly prevalent and a leading cause of disability. This is an update to the 2012 Academy of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy (AOPT), formerly the Orthopaedic Section of the American Physical Therapy Association (APTA), clinical practice guideline (CPG) for LBP. The overall objective of this update was to provide recommendations on interventions delivered by physical therapists or studied in care settings that included physical therapy providers. It also focused on synthesizing new evidence, with the purpose of making recommendations for specific nonpharmacologic treatments. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther 2021;51(11):CPG1-CPG60. doi:10.2519/jospt.2021.0304.

Keywords: Academy of Orthopaedic Physical Therapy; clinical practice guidelines; low back pain; nonpharmacologic treatment.

MeSH terms

  • Chronic Pain*
  • Humans
  • Low Back Pain* / therapy
  • Physical Therapists*
  • Physical Therapy Modalities