Dissecting CTCF site function in a tense HoxD locus

Genes Dev. 2021 Nov 1;35(21-22):1401-1402. doi: 10.1101/gad.349089.121.


In this issue of Genes & Development, Amândio and colleagues (pp. 1490-1509) dissect the function of a cluster of several CTCF binding sites in the HoxD cluster by iterative deletions in mice. They found additive functions for some, and intriguingly found that some sites function as insulators, while others function as anchors for enhancer-promoter interactions. These functions vary depending on developmental context. The work provides new insights into the roles played by CTCF in regulating developmental patterns and 3D chromatin organization.

Keywords: 3D chromatin; CRISPR–Cas9; Hox genes; enhancer selection; limb development.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Animals
  • Binding Sites / genetics
  • CCCTC-Binding Factor / genetics
  • CCCTC-Binding Factor / metabolism
  • Chromatin* / genetics
  • Enhancer Elements, Genetic* / genetics
  • Homeodomain Proteins
  • Mice
  • Promoter Regions, Genetic / genetics


  • CCCTC-Binding Factor
  • Chromatin
  • Ctcf protein, mouse
  • Homeodomain Proteins