Objective: To determine if extremely preterm (EPT) neonates receiving dexamethasone for the prevention of BPD have a higher incidence of presumed adrenal insufficiency (PAI).
Study design: Retrospective cohort study of neonates <28 weeks gestation examining PAI after dexamethasone use and PAI after intratracheal budesonide with surfactant administration.
Result: Of 332 neonates, 38% received dexamethasone. The incidence of PAI was higher in neonates who had received dexamethasone (20.8% vs 2.9%, p < 0.001). However, for intubated babies receiving surfactant, dexamethasone was not independently associated with increased PAI after adjusting for gestational age, birthweight, and race (aOR 2.92, 95% CI: 0.79-10.85). Dexamethasone was independently associated with increased PAI in infants previously receiving budesonide/surfactant treatment (aOR 5.38, 95% CI: 1.38-20.90).
Conclusion: The use of dexamethasone alone was not associated with increased PAI, when adjusted for prematurity-related factors. The combination of budesonide with dexamethasone was significantly associated with increased PAI.
© 2021. The Author(s), under exclusive licence to Springer Nature America, Inc.