Hybrid closed Loop improved glucose control compared to sensor-augmented pumps in outpatients with type 1 diabetes in real-life conditions with telehealth monitoring

Acta Diabetol. 2022 Mar;59(3):395-401. doi: 10.1007/s00592-021-01820-9. Epub 2021 Nov 1.


Objectives: The study aims at evaluating glucose metrics and HbA1C values after pump initiation in outpatient settings.

Research design and methods: This single center observational study enrolled 121 subjects with type 1 diabetes between September 2020 and May 2021 initiating sensor-augmented pump therapy with stand-alone CGM (n = 26) or pump users who only changed their device (n = 51), with predictive low glucose management (n = 8) or with Hybrid Closed Loop using Medtronic 780G (n = 36) systems. Changes in HbA1C levels and glucose metrics were analyzed after 3 months. All subjects received diabetes and carbohydrate-counting education if needed at time of initiation and were proposed a telehealth monitoring by a diabetic nurse educator.

Results: There was no episodes of severe hypoglycemia or diabetic ketoacidosis nor serious pump-related adverse events despite outpatient model of care. While only 18/121 (14.8%) participants reached initially the recommended HbA1C levels, 23/85 (27%) in the conventional group and 33/36 (91%) subjects in the Hybrid Closed Loop group reached target levels after 3 months of follow-up. Time in target range 3.9-10 mmol/L (70-180 mg/dl) also improved and was optimal with closed loop with 30/36 (83%) subjects with time in range above 70%.

Conclusions: Initiation of insulin pump therapy for outpatients is safe with a dedicated facility. Telehealth monitoring after outpatient initiation provides tools for improvement in glucose control with an insulin pump. Outpatient pump initiation is compatible with Hybrid Closed Loop systems which provide the largest improvements in glucose control.

Keywords: Insulin pump; Outpatient; Telemedicine; Type 1 diabetes.

Publication types

  • Observational Study

MeSH terms

  • Blood Glucose
  • Blood Glucose Self-Monitoring
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / chemically induced
  • Diabetes Mellitus, Type 1* / drug therapy
  • Humans
  • Hypoglycemic Agents / therapeutic use
  • Insulin / therapeutic use
  • Insulin Infusion Systems
  • Outpatients
  • Telemedicine*


  • Blood Glucose
  • Hypoglycemic Agents
  • Insulin