Purpose: To evaluate the impact of implant surface characteristics on the initiation, progression and treatment outcomes of peri-implantitis based exclusively on in vivo investigations.
Materials and methods: A literature search was conducted by two independent reviewers following the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-Analyses guidelines to identify animal studies comparing at least two different implant surfaces affected by experimental peri-implantitis, with distinct characteristics and with or without subsequent surgical treatment that aims to arrest disease progression. The parameters evaluated included both radiographic (e.g., marginal bone level) and clinical (e.g., probing depth, bleeding on probing) aspects to determine changes in disease progression and treatment outcomes.
Results: No statistically significant differences were found among the different implant surfaces during the initiation of peri-implantitis. On the other hand, the progression and treatment outcomes of peri-implantitis displayed statistically significant differences among the different implant systems, with turned surfaces reporting less bone loss during the progression period and greater bone gain after treatment.
Conclusions: Implant surface characteristics play a critical role in the progression and treatment outcomes of peri-implantitis. Turned implant surfaces demonstrated the least amount of bone loss after ligature removal and recorded the most favourable treatment outcomes.
Keywords: alveolar bone loss; dental implants; peri-implantitis; review (systematic); surface roughness.