Detection of Early Gastric Cancer after Helicobacter pylori Eradication

Digestion. 2022;103(1):54-61. doi: 10.1159/000519838. Epub 2021 Nov 2.

Abstract

Background: Based on evidence that Helicobacter pylori eradication reduces the development of gastric cancer and other diseases such as peptic ulcer, eradication therapy has prevailed. However, gastric cancer can develop even after successful eradication.

Summary: In this review article, we searched for studies that identified the characteristics of primary and metachronous gastric cancers after H. pylori eradication, the risk factors for the development of these cancers after successful H. pylori eradication, and whether image-enhanced endoscopy is useful for diagnosing gastric cancer after eradication. A gastritis-like appearance is seen as a characteristic endoscopic finding, which corresponds to an epithelium with low-grade atypia - also known as nonneoplastic epithelium - covering the surface of the cancerous glands. This finding may make endoscopic detection of early gastric cancer difficult after H. pylori eradication. Similar risk factors, such as the male sex, endoscopic atrophy, histologic intestinal metaplasia, and late eradication, have been reported as predictors for the development of both primary and metachronous gastric cancers. Image-enhanced endoscopy, such as linked color imaging, may be useful for the detection and risk stratification of gastric cancer after eradication. Key Messages: Based on these findings, we believe that effective surveillance of high-risk patients leads to early detection of gastric cancer in the era of H. pylori eradication.

Keywords: Characteristics; Eradication; Gastric cancer; Helicobacter pylori; Predictor.

Publication types

  • Review

MeSH terms

  • Endoscopy, Gastrointestinal
  • Gastric Mucosa
  • Gastritis*
  • Helicobacter Infections* / complications
  • Helicobacter Infections* / diagnosis
  • Helicobacter Infections* / drug therapy
  • Helicobacter pylori*
  • Humans
  • Male
  • Stomach Neoplasms* / diagnostic imaging