Multimodality imaging in patients with heart failure and preserved ejection fraction: an expert consensus document of the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging

Eur Heart J Cardiovasc Imaging. 2022 Jan 24;23(2):e34-e61. doi: 10.1093/ehjci/jeab154.


Nearly half of all patients with heart failure (HF) have a normal left ventricular (LV) ejection fraction (EF) and the condition is termed heart failure with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). It is assumed that in these patients HF is due primarily to LV diastolic dysfunction. The prognosis in HFpEF is almost as severe as in HF with reduced EF (HFrEF). In contrast to HFrEF where drugs and devices are proven to reduce mortality, in HFpEF there has been limited therapy available with documented effects on prognosis. This may reflect that HFpEF encompasses a wide range of different pathological processes, which multimodality imaging is well placed to differentiate. Progress in developing therapies for HFpEF has been hampered by a lack of uniform diagnostic criteria. The present expert consensus document from the European Association of Cardiovascular Imaging (EACVI) provides recommendations regarding how to determine elevated LV filling pressure in the setting of suspected HFpEF and how to use multimodality imaging to determine specific aetiologies in patients with HFpEF.

Keywords: diastole; echocardiography; filling pressure; heart failure; multimodality imaging.

MeSH terms

  • Consensus
  • Heart Failure* / diagnostic imaging
  • Heart Failure* / therapy
  • Humans
  • Prognosis
  • Stroke Volume
  • Ventricular Dysfunction, Left* / diagnostic imaging
  • Ventricular Function, Left